But the Balagh, spokesman for the Wafd, as the opposition close to the party is called, saw things differently and published on 18 May a long criticism of the agreement. Parliament did not meet when the agreement was signed, so one does not have the means to say what the Fellah thinks of the case. However, a passionless analysis seems to show that the agreement, perfect or imperfect, takes a big step forward in establishing healthy Anglo-Egyptian relations and records a net benefit for Egypt. “To the Italian Government: the fact that you have reached an agreement and the fact that you consider it necessary to give us a joint communication of this agreement clearly show that your intention is to exert pressure and we believe that this immediately raises an earlier issue. This question, which must be the subject of a preliminary examination, must therefore be submitted to the League of Nations. This correspondence does not mention the arrest of the so-called “Gezira” development of Sudan. What the agreement emphasizes is that the black country must subordinate its demands to those of Egypt. The latter country has the right to meet its needs from the “unsuitable” waters of the Nile. It is believed that there will be a surplus that will allow gezira Plantations Company to implement its plans. But the risk is theirs. The very essence of the agreement is therefore clearly to preserve what is called “Egypt`s natural and historical rights in the waters of the Nile”. This current has been a river since the night of Egypt`s history.
The recent agreement tends to maintain this relationship. It is envisaged that Sudan will be allowed to extract from the Nile a quantity of water that does not affect this traditional prerogative or violates Egypt`s “agricultural enlargement requirements”. My argument is that the strength of agreements made in modern times and Egypt`s threats to use military force are questionable for two reasons. First, the former colonies are now independent nations and should be part of the negotiations for a new agreement. Second, environmental conditions have changed: rainfall increases in intermittent and dry spells. Over the years, especially as the population of other Nile basin countries has grown and these countries have developed the capacity to harvest Nile water more efficiently for national development, differences have arisen over Egypt`s insisting that the water rights it acquired through the 1929 and 1959 agreements (together called the Nile Water Agreements) have been made. day; that the construction project is not respected on the Nile or on one of its tributaries without the prior authorization of Cairo . . .